Tesis Doctoral

Autora: Iris Galloso

Tutora: Asunción Santamaría

Director: Claudio Feijóo

Recent studies encourage the integration of multi-sensorial stimuli into multimedia assets to enhance the user experience by stimulating other senses beyond sight and hearing.
Similarly, the introduction of multi-modal interaction components complementing with new features, functionalities and/or information the multimedia experience is promoted.
Sensory effects as odor, wind, vibration and light effects, as well as an enhanced audio quality, have been found to favour media enjoyment and to have a positive influence on the sense of Presence and on the perceived quality, relevance and reality of a multimedia experience. Two-screen services and a direct manipulation of (elements in) the video scene have the potential to enhance user comprehension, engagement and proactive involvement of/in the media experience. Sports is among the genres that could benefit the most from these solutions.
Previous works have demonstrated the technical feasibility of implementing and deploying end-to-end solutions integrating these technologies into legacy systems. Thus, sensorially- enhanced media, two-screen services and an increased user control over the displayed scene emerge as means to deliver a new form of immersive and interactive media experiences to the mass market in a non-disruptive manner. However, many questions remain concerning issues as the specific interactive solutions or sensory effects that can better complement a given audiovisual content or the best way in which to integrate and combine them to enhance the user experience of a target audience segment. Furthermore, scientific evidence on the impact of human factors on the user experience with these new forms of immersive and interactive media is still insufficient and sometimes, contradictory.
Thus, the role of these factors on the potential adoption of these technologies has been widely ignored.
This thesis analyzes the impact of binaural audio, sensory (light and olfactory) effects, interaction with 3D objects integrated into the video scene and interaction with additional content using a second screen on the sports media experience. The potential influence of these components on the dependent variables is explored both at the overall level (average effect) and as a function of users’ characteristics (heterogeneous effects). To these aims, we conducted an experimental study exploring the influence of these immersive and interactive elements on the quality and Presence dimensions of the media experience.
Along the quality dimension, we look for possible variations on the quality scores assigned to the overall media experience and to the media components content, image, audio, sensory effects, interaction with 3D objects and interaction using the tablet device.
The potential impact on Presence is analyzed by looking at two of the four dimensions defined by the ITC-SOPI questionnaire, namely Spatial Presence and Engagement. The users’ characteristics considered encompass the following personal affective, cognitive and behavioral attributes: preferences and habits in relation to the content, knowledge of the involved technologies, tendency to get emotionally involved and tendency to get absorbed in an activity and block out external distractors and the big five personality traits extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience.
At the overall level, we found that participants preferred binaural audio than standard stereo audio and that sensory effects increase significantly the level of Spatial Presence.
Several heterogeneous effects were also revealed as a result of our experimental manipulations. Interestingly, these effects were not equally distributed across the quality and Presence measures analyzed. Whereas binaural audio was foud to have an influence on the majority of the quality and Presence measures considered, the effects of sensory effects and of interaction with additional content through the tablet device concentrate mainly on the dimensions of Presence and on quality measures, respectively. The magnitude of these effects was modulated by individual’s characteristics, such as: preferences in relation to the content, frequency of viewing similar content, knowledge of involved technologies, gender, tendency to get emotionally involved, tendency to absorption and levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience.
The personal characteristics collected in our experiment explained most of the variation in the dependent variables, confirming the frequently neglected role of individual differences on the media experience. Preferences in relation to the content, knowledge of involved technologies and tendency to get emotionally involved were among the user variables with the most generalized influence. In particular, the former two features seem to present a conflict in the allocation of attentional resources towards the media content versus the technical features of the system, respectively. Additionally, football fans’ experience seems to be modulated by emotional processes whereas for not fans, cognitive processes (and in particular those related to quality judgment) prevail.


Publication type: 
Other (Thesis...)
Publication date: 
December 2015
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