Biometric Authentication of users through iris by using key binding and similarity preserving hash functions
Autor: Fernando Hernández Álvarez
Directores: Carmen Sánchez Ávila y Luis Hernández Encinas
The extraordinary increase of new information technologies, the development of Internet of Things, the electronic commerce, the social networks, mobile or smart telephony and cloud computing and storage, have provided great benefits in all areas of society. Besides this fact, there are new challenges for the protection and privacy of information and its content, such as the loss of confidentiality and integrity of electronic documents and communications. This is exarcebated by the lack of a clear boundary between the personal world and the business world as their differences are becoming narrower.
In both worlds, i.e the personal and the business one, Cryptography has played a key role by providing the necessary tools to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability both of the privacy of the personal data and information. On the other hand, Biometrics has offered and proposed different techniques with the aim to assure the authentication of individuals through their biometric traits, such as fingerprints, iris, hand geometry, voice, gait, etc.
Each of these sciences, Cryptography and Biometrics, provides tools to specific problems of the data protection and user authentication, which would be widely strengthen if determined characteristics of both sciences would be combined in order to achieve common objectives. Therefore, it is imperative to intensify the research in this area by combining the basics mathematical algorithms and primitives of Cryptography with Biometrics to meet the growing demand for more secure and usability techniques which would improve the data protection and the user authentication. In this combination, the use of cancelable biometrics makes a cornerstone in the user authentication and identification process since it provides revocable or cancelation properties to the biometric traits.
The contributions in this thesis involve the main aspect of Biometrics, i.e. the secure and efficient authentication of users through their biometric templates, considered from three different approaches. The first one is designing a fuzzy crypto-biometric scheme using the cancelable biometric principles to take advantage of the fuzziness of the biometric templates at the same time that it deals with the intra- and inter-user variability among users without compromising the biometric templates extracted from the legitimate users.
The second one is designing a new Similarity Preserving Hash Function (SPHF), currently widely used in the Digital Forensics field to find similarities among different files to calculate their similarity level.
The function designed in this research work, besides the fact of improving the results of the two main functions of this field currently in place, it tries to expand its use to the iris template comparison.Finally, the last approach of this thesis is developing a new mechanism of handling the iris templates, considering them as signals, to use the Walsh-Hadamard transform (complemented with three other algorithms) to compare them. The results obtained are excellent taking into account the security and privacy requirements mentioned previously.
Every one of the three schemes designed have been implemented to test their operational efficacy in situations that simulate real scenarios: The fuzzy crypto-biometric scheme and the SPHF have been implemented in Java language, while the process based on the Walsh-Hadamard transform in Matlab.
The experiments have been performed using a database of iris templates (CASIA-IrisV2) to simulate a user population. The case of the new SPHF designed is special since previous to be applied i to the Biometrics field, it has been also tested to determine its applicability in the Digital Forensic field comparing similar and dissimilar files and images.
The ratios of efficiency and effectiveness regarding user authentication, i.e. False Non Match and False Match Rate, for the schemes designed have been calculated with different parameters and cases to analyse their behaviour.